Last updated on: 6/29/2023 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.

1.Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Felony and Misdemeanour,”, Oct. 16, 2019
2.Law Dictionary, “What Is a Felony Charge?,” (accessed Apr. 12, 2023)
3.Law Offices of Brandon White, “Types of Violent Crimes We Handle,” (accessed Apr. 12, 2023)
4.Debra Parkes, “Article: Ballot Boxes behind Bars: Toward the Repeal of Prisoner Disenfranchisement Laws,” Temple Political and Civil Rights Law Review, Fall 2003
5.Erin Kelley, “Racism & Felony Disenfranchisement: An Intertwined History,”, May 9, 2017
6.What Is a Vote Worth, “First Constitution of Kentucky, 1792,” (accessed Mar. 30, 2023)
7.Caroline Sullivan, “What Can We Learn From the History of Felony Disenfranchisement?,”, Nov. 5, 2021
8.Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica,” Fourteenth Amendment,”, Aug. 29, 2022
9.Justia, “Richardson v. Ramirez, 418 U.S. 24 (1974),” (accessed Mar. 30, 2023)
10.Justia, “Hunter v. Underwood, 471 U.S. 222 (1985),” (accessed Mar. 30, 2023), “State Voting Laws & Policies for People with Felony Convictions,”, Mar. 7, 2023
12.The Sentencing Project and Human Rights Watch, “Disenfranchisement in Other Countries,” (accessed June 29, 2023)
13.Daniel Gotoff, Sandra Markowitz, McCauley Pugh, and Ronan Ferrentino, “New National Poll Shows Majority Favor Guaranteed Right to Vote for All,”, Aug. 9, 2022
14.Ethics Unwrapped, “Social Contract Theory,” (accessed June 27, 2023
15.Chandra Bozelko, "Bozelko: Felony Disenfranchisement Is Not a Punishment,", Jan. 15, 2020
16.Tia Braxton, et al., “Crime and Punishment… As Well As Rehabilitation and Reenfranchisement? Should States Allow Non-violent Felony Offenders the Right to Vote?,”, 2020
17.Tamar Sarai, “Felon Re-Enfranchisement Restores More than Civil Rights,”, Nov. 3, 2022
18.Elly Belle, “This Racist Form of Voter Suppression Is Killing Democracy — & Nobody’s Talking about It,”, Nov. 2, 2020
19.Giovanni Padilla, “Disenfranchisement of People with Felony Records and the Racial Discrimination Behind It,”, Fall 2020
20.Christopher Uggen, Ryan Larson, Sarah Shannon, and Robert Stewart, “Locked Out 2022: Estimates of People Denied Voting Rights,”, Oct. 25, 2022
21.Patricia A. Homan and Tyson H. Brown, “Sick and Tired of Being Excluded: Structural Racism in Disenfranchisement as a Threat to Population Health Equity,”, Feb. 2022
22.Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Stamp Act,”, Dec. 9, 2022
23.IRS Federal Interagency Reentry Council, “Reentry Myth Buster! On Federal Taxes,” (accessed Apr. 12, 2023)
24.ACLU, “U.N. Committee Says U.S. Bans on Former Prisoner Voting Violate International Law,” (accessed Apr. 12, 2023)
25.Erica Wood, “Restoring the Right to Vote,”, Aug. 2019
26.Daniel Gross, “Why Shouldn’t Prisoners Be Voters?,”, Feb. 27, 2020
27.Tucker Carlson, TUCKER, MSNBC, June 26, 2006
28.Hans von Spakovsky, “Collateral Consequences of Felony Convictions: Felon Voting,”, Oct. 31, 2017
29.Celeste Friend, “Social Contract Theory,” (accessed Apr. 13, 2023)
30.Hans A. von Spakovsky, “Ex-Cons Should Prove they Deserve the Right to Vote,”, Mar. 15, 2013
31.Charles Moster, “It’s Debatable: Should Felons Who Have Paid Their Debts to Society Be Allowed to Vote?,”, June 14, 2019
32.Associated Press, “Judges Rule Florida Felons Can’t Vote until They Pay Fines, Fees,”, Sep. 11, 2020
33.Pam Bondi, “Clemency Shift Upholds Rule of Law,”, Mar. 16, 2011
34.Farrakhan v. Washington,, February 24, 2004
35.Rob McKenna, “Cross-Motion For Summary Judgment and Response to Plaintiffs’ Motion for Summary Judgment,” Madison v. Washington, Dec. 21, 2005
36.National Constitution Center, “On This Day: ‘No Taxation without Representation!,’”, Oct. 7, 2022