Last updated on: 7/30/2021 | Author: ProCon.org

Number of People by State Who Cannot Vote Due to a Felony Conviction



Estimates of Disenfranchised People with Felony Convictions, 2020*

*The Sentencing Project noted that these estimates are not head counts.

StateTotal DisenfranchisedVoting Age Population% Disenfranchised
Alabama328,1983,671,1108.94%
Alaska5,541530,3851.04%
Arizona233,8164,812,7644.86%
Arkansas87,1872,195,8703.97%
California243,18125,232,6340.96%
Colorado22,6073,979,3250.57%
Connecticut20,1242,600,9790.77%
Delaware11,524704,1081.64%
Florida1,132,49314,724,1137.69%
Georgia275,0897,254,6933.79%
Hawaii4,8991,016,5560.48%
Idaho32,5001,192,7422.72%
Illinois39,0059,055,1870.43%
Indiana30,6594,876,2180.63%
Iowa34,2272,312,6661.48%
Kansas21,2562,077,5661.02%
Kentucky197,6723,338,1985.92%
Louisiana76,9243,452,7672.23%
Maine01,059,5420%
Maryland18,7784,262,3880.44%
Massachusetts8,9564,964,6860.18%
Michigan38,8197,472,6680.52%
Minnesota64,7004,037,2951.6%
Mississippi235,1522,228,65910.55%
Missouri95,4854,585,9942.08%
Montana4,221804,2630.52%
Nebraska22,3961,358,7861.65%
Nevada14,3971,973,6520.73%
New Hampshire2,9051,048,2010.28%
New Jersey19,8966,117,6150.33%
New Mexico18,4511,485,4901.24%
New York44,34313,686,6850.32%
North Carolina83,8377,413,1811.13%
North Dakota1,821562,6320.32%
Ohio50,4028,797,9150.57%
Oklahoma56,9952,819,1682.02%
Oregon15,8713,002,2610.53%
Pennsylvania48,8239,748,2900.5%
Rhode Island2,588789,0620.33%
South Carolina44,5843,731,3481.19%
South Dakota13,339635,4052.1%
Tennessee451,2274,964,9099.09%
Texas500,47417,859,4962.8%
Utah7,9871,982,9110.4%
Vermont0494,6740%
Virginia366,0656,096,2446%
Washington45,0905,173,9740.87%
West Virginia17,2741,442,0351.2%
Wisconsin69,3444,347,4131.6%
Wyoming11,403432,2842.64%
Total5,177,780228,407,0072.27%

Sentence Status of Disenfranchised People with Felony Convictions, 2020*

*The Sentencing Project noted that these estimates are not head counts.

StatePrisonParoleFelony ProbationJailPost-Sentence
Alabama25,37011,30231,3341,486258,706
Alaska4,3421,0031888
Arizona41,9557,53456,1171,337126,873
Arkansas17,26926,59542,468855
California123,930119,252
Colorado21,2511,356
Connecticut12,9907,134
Delaware5,3803173,2292,599
Florida95,6344,201137,0535,788889,817
Georgia53,60719,206197,6274,650
Hawaii4,899
Idaho8,8375,61317,621429
Illinois37,1151,890
Indiana28,6681,991
Iowa10,2627,01411,5814474,923
Kansas10,7315,7644,032729
Kentucky23,20915,00329,5092,354127,597
Louisiana29,87139,4994,3893,165
Maine
Maryland17,874904
Massachusetts7,8731,084
Michigan37,0121,806
Minnesota8,9888,09746,932683
Mississippi19,62410,88726,2721,488176,881
Missouri26,35322,90244,9161,314
Montana3,903319
Nebraska5,8659105,7593769,485
Nevada13,581816
New Hampshire2,735170
New Jersey18,924973
New Mexico6,5632,8708,384634
New York41,4612,882
North Carolina32,09115,07834,6302,037
North Dakota1,640180
Ohio48,4002,002
Oklahoma26,8611,77827,0331,323
Oregon15,368503
Pennsylvania45,1253,699
Rhode Island2,588
South Carolina17,4005,73920,2651,180
South Dakota3,9043,8185,421196
Tennessee21,7139,93756,6872,787360,103
Texas165,861109,337217,6217,655
Utah7,078909
Vermont
Virginia35,6842,20364,4693,286260,424
Washington19,26013,55810,8481,423
West Virginia6,1835,7864,734570
Wisconsin24,30421,41722,2951,329
Wyoming2,6891,0384,3171513,208
Total1,242,223504,7921,135,73169,1652,225,868

Estimates of Disenfranchised Black Americans with Felony Convictions, 2020*

*The Sentencing Project noted that these estimates are not head counts.

StateTotalVoting Age Population% Disenfranchised
Alabama149,716962,51915.55%
Alaska55117,2543.19%
Arizona26,914212,02612.69%
Arkansas29,403331,4608.87%
California50,3601,711,7992.94%
Colorado4,076155,6592.62%
Connecticut8,111254,1763.19%
Delaware7,839150,9075.19%
Florida338,4332,194,48815.42%
Georgia145,6012,322,2756.27%
Hawaii21921,1731.03%
Idaho6066,5639.24%
Illinois21,5331,340,6321.61%
Indiana9,838431,5602.28%
Iowa7,26363,85611.37%
Kansas5,740118,6534.84%
Kentucky38,665256,02415.1%
Louisiana47,9511,087,2704.41%
Maine07,8460%
Maryland13,3101,285,7031.04%
Massachusetts2,417313,7070.77%
Michigan20,8201,009,8832.06%
Minnesota13,333184,2697.24%
Mississippi130,501817,49315.96%
Missouri26,229509,1685.15%
Montana1083,2343.35%
Nebraska6,12657,84310.59%
Nevada4,435184,7402.4%
New Hampshire19712,2771.6%
New Jersey12,031841,9941.43%
New Mexico1,09531,1363.52%
New York21,4022,095,4341.02%
North Carolina39,9891,625,1222.46%
North Dakota21110,2872.06%
Ohio22,5321,028,7892.19%
Oklahoma11,240205,8445.46%
Oregon1,44952,2902.77%
Pennsylvania22,3571,009,2792.22%
Rhode Island75142,2941.78%
South Carolina24,5011,002,7362.44%
South Dakota9626,99913.75%
Tennessee174,997814,57621.48%
Texas138,9262,372,0015.86%
Utah54219,1112.84%
Vermont04,7500%
Virginia190,6051,195,60315.94%
Washington6,447180,9003.56%
West Virginia1,91251,2523.73%
Wisconsin22,371249,1878.98%
Wyoming1,3413,70236.22%
Total1,807,32928,867,7436.26%

Sentence Status of Disenfranchised Black Americans with Felony Convictions, 2020*

*The Sentencing Project noted that these estimates are not head counts.

StatePrisonParoleFelony ProbationJailPost-Sentence
Alabama13,3096,73910,421770118,478
Alaska44391160
Arizona6,1129106,55925513,078
Arkansas7,0609,82912,158356
California35,15915,201
Colorado3,669407
Connecticut5,4792,633
Delaware3,2081731,3653,094
Florida44,8422,24533,9152,366255,066
Georgia32,10910,577101.0031,911
Hawaii219
Idaho24216917718
Illinois20,5101,023
Indiana9,440398
Iowa2,6131,3282,0261151,180
Kansas2,9121,5301,094204
Kentucky4,8823,0185,09251625,157
Louisiana20,00823,6692,6301,644
Maine
Maryland12,527783
Massachusetts2,153264
Michigan19,7831,036
Minnesota3,2212,1507,705256
Mississippi12,2256,44415,08277095,980
Missouri8,7866,87510,066502
Montana1018
Nebraska1,627202735943,468
Nevada4,215220
New Hampshire17818
New Jersey11,579452
New Mexico46316939270
New York20,01501,388
North Carolina16,5607,45214,8381,140
North Dakota18229
Ohio21,750782
Oklahoma6,7676583,489325
Oregon1,40247
Pennsylvania20,9031,454
Rhode Island751
South Carolina10,3633,5719,867700
South Dakota30222041922
Tennessee9,1774,18319,5491,045141,043
Texas54,15338,59843,8542,321
Utah47765
Vermont
Virginia19,7851,48627,6401,724139,970
Washington3,3942,121673259
West Virginia786569387170
Wisconsin10,1657,3304,450427
Wyoming1344797151,048
Total486,138160,186335,70126,372798,933

Estimates of Disenfranchised Latino Americans with Felony Convictions, 2020*

*The Sentencing Project noted that these estimates are not head counts.

StateTotalVoting Age Population% Disenfranchised
Alabama2,94770,2384.2%
Alaska16729,9130.56%
Arizona77,8321,092,1017.13%
Arkansas3,19774,0034.32%
California77,8907,374,1231.06%
Colorado7,075605,2121.17%
Connecticut5,261300,8961.75%
Delaware78137,1592.1%
Florida90,81628546883.18%
Georgia8,551324,3682.64%
Hawaii22585,8840.26%
Idaho3,64291,3663.99%
Illinois5,025987,1950.51%
Indiana1,298186,2260.7%
Iowa2,81573,8413.81%
Kansas2,592138,7161.87%
Kentucky3,42954,9976.23%
Louisiana247102,4940.24%
Maine012,9780%
Maryland763213,4360.36%
Massachusetts2,403411,7600.58%
Michigan470242,5300.19%
Minnesota3,989107,4053.71%
Mississippi1,71935,8094.8%
Missouri1,794113,6141.58%
Montana9522,7350.42%
Nebraska4,49377,1675.82%
Nevada3,021363,5070.83%
New Hampshire19126,6450.72%
New Jersey3,156878,9640.36%
New Mexico10,589626,1841.69%
New York10,6821,955,5800.55%
North Carolina3,890291v9331.33%
North Dakota12314,4960.85%
Ohio1,452220,8590.66%
Oklahoma3,945152,9142.58%
Oregon1,956213,4320.92%
Pennsylvania4,860482,0981.01%
Rhode Island62078,8940.79%
South Carolina81499,5650.82%
South Dakota49614,4493.44%
Tennessee11,754111,23810.57%
Texas175,1805,243,7293.34%
Utah1,609165,4800.97%
Vermont07,4750%
Virginia7,372314,9492.34%
Washington3,815366,4111.04%
West Virginia9515,8050.6%
Wisconsin5,100164,9263.09%
Wyoming1,12529,7693.78%
Total561,48627,560,1562.04%

Sentence Status of Disenfranchised Latino Americans with Felony Convictions, 2020*

*The Sentencing Project noted that these estimates are not head counts.

StatePrisonParoleFelony ProbationJailPost-Sentence
Alabama26149322602,254
Alaska1243770
Arizona16,2552,85818,55936439,797
Arkansas5529741,61556
California54,66023,230
Colorado6,688387
Connecticut3,4651,797
Delaware2608186327
Florida12,00040918,54474959,113
Georgia2,1181,1145,013306
Hawaii225
Idaho1,3529941,149146
Illinois4,780245
Indiana1,147152
Iowa65562991448569
Kansas1,329649500113
Kentucky317160369712,512
Louisiana311371563
Maine
Maryland664100
Massachusetts2,075328
Michigan356113
Minnesota5355862,79276
Mississippi180128270391,101
Missouri47846276984
Montana7719
Nebraska81984809752,705
Nevada2,833189
New Hampshire17218
New Jersey2,962194
New Mexico3,9141,7434,330602
New York10,066616
North Carolina1,7426841,328137
North Dakota10122
Ohio1,36389
Oklahoma2,0012111,534199
Oregon1,88373
Pennsylvania4,369491
Rhode Island620
South Carolina4166231521
South Dakota1441482004
Tennessee4613071,722909,174
Texas55,06632,57185,0622,480
Utah1,413196
Vermont
Virginia979131,2131015,066
Washington2,508933171203
West Virginia24183618
Wisconsin1,9061,928117195
Wyoming34612339017248
Total206,69273,047149,3079,452122,989

Source:

Christopher Uggen, Ryan Larson, Sarah Shannon, and Arleth Pulido-Nava, “Locked Out 2020: Estimates of People Denied Voting Rights Due to a Felony Conviction,” sentencingproject.org, Oct. 2020